Database Management Basics

Database management is a system for managing information that aids the business operations of an organization. It involves storing and distributing data it to users and applications and editing it when needed as well as monitoring changes in data and stopping data corruption due unexpected failure. It is one component of a company’s informational infrastructure that aids in decision-making and growth for the business as well as compliance with laws like the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM among others came up with the first database systems. They developed into information management systems (IMS), which allowed large amounts data to be stored and retrieved for a range of purposes. From calculating inventory, to supporting complex financial accounting functions as well as human resource functions.

A database is a set of tables that organizes data in accordance with the specific scheme, for example one-to many relationships. It utilizes primary key to identify records and permits cross-references among tables. Each table is comprised of a variety of fields, referred to as attributes, which provide information about the entities that comprise the data. The most well-known type of database today is a relational model, developed by E. F. « Ted » Codd at IBM in the 1970s. The design is based on normalizing the data, making it simpler to use. It also makes it easier to update data by avoiding the need to change various databases.

The majority of DBMSs support a variety of databases by offering different internal and external levels of organization. The internal level deals with cost, scalability, as well as other operational issues, like the physical layout of the database. The external level is the representation of the database on user interfaces and applications. It could comprise a combination of various external views (based on the various data models) and can also include virtual tables that are computed from data that is generic to enhance performance.